The Afghan peace process includes proposals and negotiations to end the ongoing war in Afghanistan. Although sporadic efforts have been made since the war began in 2001, negotiations and the pacifist movement intensified in 2018 amid talks between the Taliban, the main insurgent group fighting the Afghan government and U.S. troops; and the United States, with thousands of troops in the country supporting the Afghan government.  In addition to the United States, regional powers such as Pakistan, China, India and Russia and NATO also play a role in facilitating the peace process.    Groups such as the Islamic State of Chorasan could oppose the negotiations and try to attract disgruntled Taliban. The insurgency is not a homogeneous organization. These include other insurgent groups, drug trafficking organizations, tribes and militias, some of whom may strongly oppose a peace agreement. Even successful peace agreements have been threatened by spoilers who refuse to participate and feel more engaged in violence to achieve their goals, such as the Real Irish Republican Army in Northern Ireland and the National Liberation Army in Colombia. Both carried out attacks before, during and after the peace accords.
Podcast with James M. Lindsay, Matthias Matthijs and Sheila A. Smith November 17, 2020 The President`s Inbox On May 17, 2020, Ghani signed a power-sharing agreement with rival Abdullah Abdullah. The agreement ended the long-running dispute over the outcome of Afghanistan`s 2019 presidential elections and put Abdullah in charge of peace negotiations.  Polls show that the Afghan people were willing to make some compromises for peace. But many question whether the Taliban can be held accountable for what they have promised. They also fear losing the important achievements of international engagement in Afghanistan, such as women`s empowerment, increased freedom of expression and a more vibrant press. 3) Prisoner exchange: the United States also pledged to “work immediately on a plan with all parties involved,” to release up to 5,000 Taliban and 1,000 government prisoners as a confidence-building measure by March 10, 2020.
Third, a peace process that has collapsed or stopped and a nascent war could increase regional instability, with India, Pakistan, Iran and Russia supporting a mix of government forces, sub-state militias and insurgent groups. Some of these countries, such as Iran and Russia, are major competitors of the United States.